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十九大報告學習|六次“初心”(下)


心理、心態、重心
加強社會心理服務體系建設,培育自尊自信、理性平和、積極向上的社會心態。加強社區治理體系建設,推動社會治理重心向基層下移,發揮社會組織作用,實現政府治理和社會調節、居民自治良性互動。
We will improve the system of public psychological services, and cultivate self-esteem, self-confidence, rationality, composure, and optimism among our people. We will strengthen the system for community governance, shift the focus of social governance to the community level, leverage the role of social organizations, and see that government's governance efforts on the one hand and society's self regulation and residents' self-governance on the other reinforce each other.
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心理,在這時是指“社會心理服務體系”,public psychological service,算是一個心理學的專業術語。
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不過,心態,則是社會學方面的詞,但由于是與“自尊自信、理性平和、積極向上”(self-esteem, self-confidence, rationality, composure, and optimism)是同義反復的表達,在英文里,就沒有必要再翻譯一次了,顯得簡潔。
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重心,是指“社會治理重心”,英文為the focus of social governance。
決心
當前,反腐敗斗爭形勢依然嚴峻復雜,鞏固壓倒性態勢、奪取壓倒性勝利的決心必須堅如磐石。
Currently, the fight against corruption remains grave and complex; we must remain as firm as a rock?in our resolve?to build on the overwhelming momentum and secure a sweeping victory.
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“決心”一詞的英文,通常會很容易地從字典里挑出如determination, resolution, 或make a resolution等。不過,在這一句里,“決心”后面有“堅如磐石”一詞的修飾,前面則有動賓結構的“鞏固壓倒性態勢、奪取壓倒性勝利”,翻譯“決心”時,將中文的動詞詞性變成了英文的將語,即in resolve,同時將“堅如磐石”變成了修飾語,as firm as a rock。整個句子的謂語動詞則是remain。
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Resolve作為名詞,本身有determination的意思,如《柯林斯英語詞典》中解釋道:
Resolve is determination to do what you have decided to do.
這里不僅是指“決心”本身,更是指一種意志品質,the trait of being resolute
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例句:
This will strengthen the American public's resolve to go to war.
這會堅定美國公眾訴諸戰爭的決心。
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It reinforces the resolve of its neighbors to intensify their cooperation to safeguard peace and stability in the region against all provocations.
這種行為增強了其鄰國為維護地區和平與穩定及防范一切挑釁行為進行合作的決心。
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人心
“人心”一詞,如果從字面上來翻譯,則會寫成people’s heart,或是people’s mind。不過,在具體的語境里,“人心”的英文則會不一樣。
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加強黨對意識形態工作的領導,黨的理論創新全面推進,馬克思主義在意識形態領域的指導地位更加鮮明,中國特色社會主義和中國夢深入人心,社會主義核心價值觀和中華優秀傳統文化廣泛弘揚,群眾性精神文明創建活動扎實開展。
We have strengthened Party leadership over ideological work and explored new ground in advancing Party related theories. The importance of Marxism as a guiding theory is even better appreciated. Socialism with Chinese characteristics and the Chinese Dream have beenembraced?by our people. Core socialist values and fine traditional Chinese culture are alive in the people's hearts.
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在一句里,“深入人心”更多地是強調人民群眾對于“中國特色主義和中國夢”的理解與接受程度,是一種認知層面的。
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從通常理解來說,embrace作為一個動詞,可能第一出現的意思是“擁抱”,例如:
I couldn't find it in me to embrace him.
我打心眼里不想擁抱他。
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不過,這個詞還有另外一個意思,即“欣然接受,支持(變革、政治體制、觀點等)”,如《柯林斯英語詞典》所解釋的:
If you embrace a change, political system, or idea, you accept it and start supporting it or believing in it.
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例句:
He embraces the new information age...
他迎接新的信息時代的到來。
The new rules have been embraced by government watchdog organizations.
政府監察機構已經欣然接受了這些新規則。

另一個“深入人心”則是在句子中的作用不一樣,英文表達也就不同了。
要加強理論武裝,推動新時代中國特色社會主義思想深入人心。
We will better arm ourselves with theory and increase the?public appeal?of the Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era.

雖然與上一句一樣,用也是“深入人心”,卻并不是謂語動詞,是作為“推動”的結果而存在。在英文里,為了體現這樣的邏輯關系,就沒有用embrace,而是the public appeal。與中文在表達方式上有點“反其道而行之”,即中文是“思想進入人心”,英文是“思想對公眾的吸引力”。

為何這么說呢?原因在于appeal一詞的意思是:
The appeal of something is a quality that it has which people find attractive or interesting. (吸引力;感染力)
例句:
Its new title was meant to give the party greater public appeal.
新的政黨名稱意在使該黨對公眾具有更強的吸引力。

?第三個人心,是我們熟知的“人心向背”。
一個政黨,一個政權,其前途命運取決于人心向背。
The future of a political party or a government is determined by whether it enjoys?public support.
“人心向背”一詞出自宋·魏了翁《鶴山文集》:
師老財殫;幣輕物貴;常產既竭;本根易搖;此人心向背之幾也。
指是的人民大眾對事物的態度:支持或反對,用英文表達就是public support。
The new rules have been embraced by government watchdog organizations.
政府監察機構已經欣然接受了這些新規則。

另一個“深入人心”則是在句子中的作用不一樣,英文表達也就不同了。
要加強理論武裝,推動新時代中國特色社會主義思想深入人心。
We will better arm ourselves with theory and increase the?public appeal?of the Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era.

雖然與上一句一樣,用也是“深入人心”,卻并不是謂語動詞,是作為“推動”的結果而存在。在英文里,為了體現這樣的邏輯關系,就沒有用embrace,而是the public appeal。與中文在表達方式上有點“反其道而行之”,即中文是“思想進入人心”,英文是“思想對公眾的吸引力”。

為何這么說呢?原因在于appeal一詞的意思是:
The appeal of something is a quality that it has which people find attractive or interesting. (吸引力;感染力)
例句:
Its new title was meant to give the party greater public appeal.
新的政黨名稱意在使該黨對公眾具有更強的吸引力。


信心
全黨要堅定信心、奮發有為,讓中國特色社會主義展現出更加強大的生命力!
Our entire Party should develop unshakeable?confidence, work hard and work well to see socialism with Chinese characteristics display even stronger vitality.

同志們!今天,我們比歷史上任何時期都更接近、更有信心和能力實現中華民族偉大復興的目標。
Today, we are closer, more?confident, and more capable than ever before of making the goal of national rejuvenation a reality.

我們完全有信心、有能力把我國社會主義民主政治的優勢和特點充分發揮出來,為人類政治文明進步作出充滿中國智慧的貢獻!
We have every?confidence?that we can give full play to the strengths and distinctive features of China's socialist democracy, and make China's contribution to the political advancement of mankind.

我們有堅定的意志、充分的信心、足夠的能力挫敗任何形式的“臺獨”分裂圖謀。
We have the resolve, the?confidence,?and the ability to defeat separatist attempts for "Taiwan independence" in any form.

這四個“信心”都是用了confidence,展現出了對自身的能力和信念的確定性,如《柯林斯英語詞典》所說的:
If you have confidence, you feel sure about your abilities, qualities, or ideas.

在此,還有要另一個表示類似意思的英文單詞faith區別開來:
Faith的意思更多地是“相信;信任”,如《柯林斯英語詞典》所解釋的:
If you have faith in someone or something, you feel confident about their ability or goodness.

例句:
She had placed a great deal of faith in Mr Penleigh.
她對彭利先生極其信任。
同心+齊心
“同心”與“齊心”,是一對近義詞,表示“思想或認識一致”,或者是“共同的心愿;心思相同”,或是“志同道合;情投意合 ”。它們即可以作動詞,也可以作名詞。在用英文表達中,動詞的表達有come together, work together, work as one;名詞的表達有with one heart, in a concerted effort.

這個新時代,……是全體中華兒女勠力同心、奮力實現中華民族偉大復興中國夢的時代。
This new era ...?will be an era for all of us, the sons and daughters of the Chinese nation, to strive?with one heart?to realize the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation.

激勵全體中華兒女不斷奮進,凝聚起同心共筑中國夢的磅礴力量!
Let all of us, the sons and daughters of the Chinese nation,?come together, keep going, and create a mighty force that enables us to realize the Chinese Dream.

我們呼吁,各國人民同心協力,構建人類命運共同體,建設持久和平、普遍安全、共同繁榮、開放包容、清潔美麗的世界。
We call on the people of all countries to?work together?to build a community with a shared future for mankind, to build an open, inclusive, clean, and beautiful world that enjoys lasting peace, universal security, and common prosperity.

要支持特別行政區政府和行政長官依法施政、積極作為,團結帶領香港、澳門各界人士齊心協力謀發展、促和諧,……。
We will continue to support the governments and chief executives of both regions in pursuing the following endeavors: exercising law-based governance, uniting and leading the people of all sectors in an active and?concerted effort?to promote development and harmony, ...
全黨一定……團結一切可以團結的力量,齊心協力走向中華民族偉大復興的光明前景。
We must unite all the forces that can be?united?and work as one to progress toward the brilliant future of national rejuvenation.
核心
“核心”一詞在報告中出現的次數最多,達到了12次,最主要的兩個“核心”分別是“社會主義核心價值觀/體系”和“核心意識”。 這兩個“核心”的英文都可以用core來表達,不過一個是core socialist values,另一個是core leadership。

社會主義核心價值觀是當代中國精神的集中體現,凝結著全體人民共同的價值追求。
Core?socialist values represent the contemporary Chinese spirit and are a crystallization of the values shared by all Chinese people.


……增強政治意識、大局意識、核心意識、看齊意識……
We must strengthen our consciousness of the need to maintain political integrity, think in big-picture terms, follow the?leadership core, and keep in alignment.


中心
“中心”這個詞也與“初心”一樣,出現了六次。其中四次是“以人民為中心”,另兩個分別是“以經濟建設為中心”和“黨和國家的中心任務”。?

“以人民為中心”,強調的是人民的地位,于是英文people-centered用來表達同樣的意思。

深入貫徹以人民為中心的發展思想,一大批惠民舉措落地實施,人民獲得感顯著增強。
Our vision of making development?people-centered?has been acted on, a whole raft of initiatives to benefit the people has seen implementation, and the people's sense of fulfillment has grown stronger.

明確新時代我國社會主要矛盾是人民日益增長的美好生活需要和不平衡不充分的發展之間的矛盾,必須堅持以人民為中心的發展思想,不斷促進人的全面發展、全體人民共同富裕。
We must therefore continue commitment to our?people-centered?philosophy of development, and work to promote well-rounded human development and common prosperity for everyone.

堅持以人民為中心。
Committing to a?people-centered approach

社會主義文藝是人民的文藝,必須堅持以人民為中心的創作導向,在深入生活、扎根人民中進行無愧于時代的文藝創造。
Socialist literature and art are for the people: Writers and artists should take a?people-centered approach?and draw inspiration from everyday life and the experiences of the people to produce works that do justice to our times.

以經濟建設為中心”其實可理解為“經濟建設是中心任務”,與“黨和國家中心任務”是一樣的。不過,用兩種不同的表達方式,則體現出英文的多樣化表達的特點,強調用詞不重復,不啰嗦的特征。
……領導和團結全國各族人民,以經濟建設為中心……。
We must lead and unite the Chinese people of all ethnic groups in fulfilling the?central task?of economic development.

人民政協工作要聚焦黨和國家中心任務,……。
The CPPCC committees should focus on the Party and the country's?key?tasks.
關心

“關心”是一個很普通的詞,在英語里也有一些對等的詞,如動詞care about, 名詞concern。 以下四個句子就是這樣處理的:
保障和改善民生要抓住人民最關心最直接最現實的利益問題……。
As we work to ensure and improve people's wellbeing, we must focus on the most pressing, most immediate issues that?concern?the people the most.

我們要……從人民群眾關心的事情做起,從讓人民群眾滿意的事情做起,帶領人民不斷創造美好生活!
We must start with addressing issues of?public concern, start with delivering the outcomes that satisfy public needs, and work without rest to lead our people in pursuing a better life.

承認“九二共識”的歷史事實,認同兩岸同屬一個中國,兩岸雙方就能開展對話,協商解決兩岸同胞關心的問題,臺灣任何政黨和團體同大陸交往也不會存在障礙。
Recognize the historical fact of the 1992 Consensus and that the two sides both belong to one China, and then our two sides can conduct dialogue to address through discussion theconcerns?of the people of both sides, and no political party or group in Taiwan will have any difficulty conducting exchanges with the mainland.

各級黨組織要關心愛護基層干部,主動為他們排憂解難。
Party organizations at every level should?care about?officials working at the primary level, and help solve the problems and difficulties they encounter.
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全黨要關心和愛護青年,為他們實現人生出彩搭建舞臺。
All of us in the Party should?care about?young people and set the stage for them to excel.

不過,在十九大報告中,有一個“關心”與我們通常的理解不同,不是“關注”或“放在心上”,而是一種“understanding”:
我……向關心和支持中國現代化建設的各國朋友,表示衷心的感謝!
I express our heartfelt thanks ...to all our friends from around the world who have?shownunderstanding?and support for China's modernization.
在《柯林斯英語詞典》里,understanding的意思如下:
If you say that it is your understanding that something is the case, you mean that you believe it to be the case because you have heard or read that it is.?了解,理解,領會。

例句:
It is my understanding that this torture has been going on for many years...
據我了解,這種折磨已經持續很多年了。

Our understanding is that they wanted to be in Washington.
我們的理解是,他們想呆在華盛頓。

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